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Boomers Took V-A-C-A-T-I-O-N in the Summertime

It’s summertime, and the living is easy … at least for kids home for the summer break. It’s commonly repeated that summer vacation from school was tied into the agrarian economy — that the break was needed so kids could work the family farm. However, that myth is simply not true. Up until the Civil War, there were several school calendars followed across the country. The majority did link directly to the agrarian schedule, and that meant kids would have more time off in the spring (for planting) and fall (for harvesting.) There was a winter term, and a summer term. There were no summer vacations.

The same was true for their parents; summer vacation was not part of the American culture. In fact, work was considered preferable to time off, and the mantra that hard work leads to the reward of financial success remains part of our national psyche to this day.

Naturally, the wealthy always could take time off any time they wanted. Even then, religious leaders vilified leisure time, proclaiming “an idle mind is the devil’s workshop.” Nonetheless, by the mid 19th century, doctors began to speak out on the benefits of time off to relieve fatigue. It was around this time that the railroads crisscrossed the country, facilitating travel and sparking a new hotel industry. The first summer vacations from school were created at the request of this elite class to bring their children away with them. People began to head to the seashore “for the fresh air” or natural springs “to take in the waters,” and therefore, improve their health. Religious communities established resorts as a way of controlling people’s free time, lest they be tempted into drunkenness, idleness, and God forbid, real fun.

By the 1930s, time off from work, even for middle class families, was commonplace — at least in Europe. Britain passed its first paid vacation requirement (one week) in 1939, around the same time France guaranteed a worker two weeks of paid leave and the world labor market was advocating the 40 hour work week. The U.S. went its own way.

After World War II, the economy was booming. In order to compete for the best worker candidates, some American companies offered paid vacation as an incentive, though it almost never exceeded a week. It wouldn’t be until the 1970s that the vast majority of U.S. employers offered at least a week of vacation time to all full-time employees.

The U.S. does not guarantee paid vacations, the only rich nation in the world to not require it by law. As a result, a quarter of American employers do not provide paid time off for full-time workers. By contrast, the European Union requires 20 days paid, while France, Brazil and Finland offer 30 days. Today, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that an average employee with ten or more years on the job gets 10 days off per year, including holidays.

Mister Boomer recalls that in the 1950s, since a good number of his uncles worked at union jobs in factories, they received two weeks off. Mister B’s father, however, received one week. The extended family got together for a two-week camping trip every year. For Mister Boomer’s father, however, it meant dropping his family at the campground over the weekend and heading back home to work for a week. The following week he would join the family for his week of vacation.

By the time the Interstate Highway System was well underway in the early sixties, Mister Boomer’s father had earned two weeks off. He was anxious to, as the commercials urged, “See the U.S.A. in your Chevrolet” (even if it was a Ford). It was then that Mister B’s family took vacations by car and drove down Route 66, went to the White House in Washington, DC, saw the Liberty Bell in Philadelphia, counted bears in Yellowstone National Park and gazed at the Grand Canyon over the course of the decade. None of that would have been possible without two things that occurred during the Boomer Generation: the spread of paid vacation time, and summer vacation from school. Of course, like the railroads had done a century before, the Interstate Highways allowed people of even modest means to travel.

Did you spend part of your summer vacations traveling with your family, boomers?

posted by Mister B in Pop Culture History,Travel and have Comment (1)

Boomers Celebrate Thanksgiving With Family

The Thanksgiving holiday is right around the corner, and airline industry analysts expect more than 24-and-a-half million people will take a plane in the 21 day period between November 21 and December 2. That’s an increase of more than 31,000 people per day over last year. The reason is simple: people are headed “home,” which is now further away than it used to be in the Boomer Era.

Thanksgiving is the most quintessential of American holidays, and, as boomers can attest, has always meant spending time with family. It’s the most homogenous of the holidays, with turkey and all the trimmings, though the trimmings can vary slightly by region and ethnic origin. One thing hasn’t changed, and that is, it celebrates “home,” wherever that may be. At the turn of the century, over the river and through the woods was the way to grandmother’s house. By the end of the Baby Boom in 1964, the U.S. highway system meant travel by car was much easier than previous decades. The highway system had given a boost to the migration of people away from small towns and rural communities, which began in the 1950s.

The move from small communities was precipitated by a variety of factors. Soldiers returning home from the War had been subjected to stories of other places and future opportunities that stirred their imagination and wanderlust; employment was more plentiful in larger communities; returning soldiers may have married someone from a different region; the new national highway system and car travel expanded suburbs and locations that could be away but still within one day’s drive for burgeoning boomer families; and, as boomers themselves aged and became college students, life in another state was a real possibility.

After two decades of boomer families migrating away from small towns, there was a slight uptick of people moving back to those communities in the 1970s as the aging parents of boomers retired, but that quickly changed in the 1980s. Overall, in the period between 1950 and 2000, there has been a significant loss of 20 to 29 year olds in small town populations. Today only 37 percent of people continue to live in the hometown area in which they were raised. Plus, college graduates are more likely to have lived in multiple states than at any other time in history. That translates into more trips over Thanksgiving as boomers and now the children of boomers travel.

Nonetheless, for most boomers in the core boomer years of 1945 to 1964, “home” remained within a day’s drive from the place from which they were born. In Mister Boomer’s case, all of his aunts, uncles and cousins lived within a hour’s drive of each other. Many lived in the same city. Like many boomers, it was a move out of an urban environment to expanding suburbs during the Baby Boom for Mister B’s parents. As a result, Mister B’s suburb was literally on the edge of suburbia-meets-farmland. There was a working farm directly behind the row of houses across the street from Mister B’s childhood home until the early 1960s, when the land was parceled up and new homes were built. Getting grandparents and extended family together for Thanksgiving was a short freeway drive away.

Unlike a lot of movies and nightmare stories some people have of family gatherings, Thanksgiving for Mister B was a great American holiday designed for stuffing one’s self to the gills, even if it meant sitting at the kids’ table. (See: Boomers Had a Different Thanksgiving).

How far will you travel this Thanksgiving, boomers? Or is your family traveling back to you?

posted by Mister B in Holidays,Pop Culture History,Travel and have Comment (1)

Boomers Fly the Friendly Skies

While on vacation, Mister Boomer missed posting last week because Hurricane Irene disrupted air travel for a good portion of the East Coast. Over 11,000 flights were cancelled as several airports shut down altogether. As a result, Mister B’s vacation was extended days beyond the usual posting time. That got Mister B thinking, not of boomers and natural disasters, but about boomers and air travel.

Air travel became possible for civilians in the 1930s, but the prohibitive cost prevented middle class families from jumping on this modern form of transportation in any great numbers. It wasn’t until the introduction of reliable jet planes in the 1950s — boomer time — that airlines improved efficiency and profitability, especially on shorter-distance routes, to the point where flights became more affordable for the average family. Even still, air travel was considered adventurous. It wasn’t until 1958, when travel costs went down due to faster jet engines and airline efficiencies, that air travel first became more popular than ships for transatlantic crossings. More than one million passengers flew to Europe that year. By 1968, that number had grown to six million.

Many sources refer to flying in the 1950s and 60s as the Golden Age of Flying. Spacious seating areas, white-glove service, full meals — served on tablecloths with real silverware by beautiful, young “stewardesses” to attend to your in-flight comfort (long before “flight attendant” became politically correct) showed the airlines’ intent to emulate ship and train travel in the air.

Flying was an experience in and of itself. As such, people wore dress clothes when boarding a plane. Men wore suits and ties, while women donned dresses and jewelry. Even children were encouraged to wear their “Sunday best.” The idea was to allow daily functions to occur in the air as much as possible, with a luxe feel. That included smoking. Coming back home after World War II, the majority of American men smoked. Air travel had no restrictions on the activity until 1973 when the U.S. Congress passed legislation requiring all airlines to create non-smoking areas. Smoking was banned completely on flights less than six hours in 1990.

Some say there never really was a Golden Age of Flying. They point to the higher relative cost and slower travel times by today’s standards, meals that didn’t live up to the hype, and the inconvenience of sitting in a steel tube for several hours to get to your destination. By the time Mister Boomer took his first flight in 1971, air travel was changing: Airlines were buying larger planes that transported more people per flight. The spacious seating areas of the early days had given way to more seats installed per plane. They bought new aircraft like the DC-9, Boeing 707 and ultimately, the granddaddy of people movers at the time, the 747.

Many men still wore suits on board, but they were usually business men. People on regular vacation flights began embracing the more casual dress mode of the decade, tailored to their destination. In Mister B’s early experience, at that point air travel was moving more toward emulating bus service rather than that of a passenger ship.

One thing that has greatly improved the experience today, though, is the smoking ban. Mister B recalls those early flights — where the back half of the plane was earmarked for smokers — as nothing more than hurling through the air for a specified number of hours inside an enclosed ashtray. Second-hand smoke was a phrase that no one uttered. It made that first step off the plane all the more special as you could leave the stale air of the plane behind.

For the most part, plane travel got people to exotic destinations they did not have the time to get to by car, within a limited vacation schedule (like Hawaii, California or Dubuque). For that, it was an efficient method of travel. For Mister Boomer’s neighborhood, though, “See the USA in Your Chevrolet” was more common than flying the friendly skies.

What first memories of air travel do you recall, boomers?

 

posted by Mister B in Technology,Travel and have Comments Off on Boomers Fly the Friendly Skies